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New species of the genus Cleisostoma in the flora of Vietnam

Last modified on 22/9/2015 at 5:40:00 PM. Total 6981 views.

A short review of the genus Cleisostoma in the flora of Vietnam is presented with 9 sections and 28 species among which 9 are locally endemic. Present data show the territory of Vietnam as the richest center of diversity for the genus. Two monotypic sections (Gastrochilopsis, Pterogyne) and three species (Cleisostoma lecongkietii, C. phitamii, C. tricornutum) are described as new for science, two species (C. subulatum, C. linearilobatum) are reported on the base of voucher specimens as a new record for the flora of Vietnam

The polyphyletic genus Cleisostoma Blume, with a series of such more or less closely-allied, well-defined and widespread Asian genera such as Acampe Lindl., Gastrochilus D.Don, Holcoglossum Schltr., Micropera Lindl., Pelatantheria Ridl., Pomatocalpa Breda, Stereochilus Lindl., etc., and forming relatively “stable” taxonomic groups at the rank of subtribe are named in various publications including Sarcanthinae Benth. (Dressler, 1981), Aeridinae Pfitz. (Averyanov, 1991, 2008; Dressler, 1993; Pridgeon et al., 2014), Vandinae Rchb.f. (Averyanov, 1994) or Gastrochilinae Szlach. (Szlachetko, 1995), is placed in the tribe Vandeae Lindl. of subfamily Vandoideae Endl. (Dressler, 1981; Averyanov, 1991, 1994, 2008; Szlachetko, 1995) or Epidendroideae Lindl. (Dressler, 1993; Pridgeon et al., 2014). Cleisostoma includes about 100-110 species that are widely distributed within mainland tropical and subtropical Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia to the Japan, Philippines, New Guinea, Pacific islands and Australia (Seidenfaden, 1975; Comber, 1990, 2001; Seidenfaden, Wood, 1992; Su Horng-Jye, 2000; Pearce, Cribb, 2002; Chen, Wood, 2009).

Available literature suggested Thailand to be the richest area of diversity for the genus where 27 species have been reported (Seidenfaden, 1975; Comber, 2001). Publications on the orchid inventory in Vietnam listed only 20 species of the genus occurring there (Seidenfaden, 1992; Averyanov, 1994; Averyanov, Averyanova, 2003). Recent studies in Vietnam discovered and recorded additional species including

Cleisostoma chantaburiense Seidenf. (Tich, 1991; Tran Hop, 1998), and three local endemics after the date of publication of the last inventory. These local-endemic species are - Cleisostoma flavescens Aver. et Averyanova, C. melanorachis Aver. and C. subulifolium Aver. (Averyanov, Averyanova, 2003, 2005). Eventually, two additional new species of the genus were recently recorded for the flora of Vietnam - Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Seidenf. et Smitinand) Garay and C. subulatum Blume (Nguyen Van Canh pers. comm.). This paper describes three new species recently discovered in Vietnam - C. lecongkietii Tich et Aver., C. phitamii Tich et Aver. and C. tricornutum Aver., and provides additional information about C. linearilobatum (Seidenf. et Smitinand) Garay and C. subulatum Blume - new records for the flora. The present study suggests that the flora of Vietnam contains the richest diversity of species of Cleisostoma with 28 currently recognized species listed in table 1. Nine species, or one third of the total, are strict endemics with very restricted distribution. Two of the described endemic species have a very isolated taxonomic position. These are segregated into separate monotypic sections - Sect. Gastrochilopsis (type - C. phitamii) and Sect. Pterogyne (type - C. lecongkietii).

It is noteworthy that the strong deformation of the complicated fleshy lip structures typically occurring on dry herbarium specimens consistently makes taxonomic studies of the genus problematic. Future investigations using living plant material or liquid-fixed specimens will undoubtedly reveal new promising perspectives for the discovery of many more novelties within this genus.

The genus Cleisostoma Blume in Vietnam

Gen. Cleisostoma Blume., 1825. Bijdr. 362: 20.

 Sect. 1. Cleisostoma; Seidenf., 1975, Dansk Bot. Ark. 29, 3:

C. aspersum (Rchb.f.) Garay C. crochetii (Guillaum.) Garay C. discolor Lindl.
C. flavescens Aver. et Averyanova*
C. lendyanum (Rchb.f.) Garay*
C. linearilobatum (Seidenf. et Smitinand) Garay C. melanorachis Aver.*
C. racemiferum (Lindl.) Garay C. tricornutum Aver.*

Sect. 2. Complicata Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 63

C. chantaburiense Seidenf.
C. simondii (Gagnep.) Seidenf.

Sect. 3. Echinoglossa Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 40

C. birmanicum (Schltr.) Garay
C. striatum (Rchb.f.) Garay

Sect. 4. Gastrochilopsis Aver., sect. nov.

C. phitamii Tich et Aver.*10

Sect. 5. Mitriformia Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 45

C. arietinum (Rchb.f.) Garay
C. williamsonii (Rchb.f.) Garay

Sect. 6. Paniculata Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 34

C. chapaense (Guillaum.) Garay*
C. duplicilobum (JJ.Smith) Garay C. equestre Seidenf.*
C. inflatum (Rolfe) Garay
C. paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.) Garay

Sect. 7. Pilearia (Lindl.) Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 55

C. filiforme (Lindl.) Garay
C. fuerstenbergianum Kraenzl.

Sect. 8. Pterogyne Aver., sect. nov.

C. lecongkietii Tich et Aver.*

Sect. 9. Subulata Seidenf., 1975, l.c.: 23 C. rostratum (Lodd.) Seidenf.

C. scortechinii (Hook.f.) Garay C. subulatum Blume C. subulifolium Aver.*

New species Cleisostoma found in Vietnam

Cleisostoma tricornutum Aver.

Described from northern Vietnam (“Thanh Hoa province, Thuong Xuan district, Van Xuan municipality, Hang Cao village, Xuan Lien natural reserve. Remnants of primary and secondary broad-leaved evergreen forest on highly eroded rocky limestone hills at elevation 100-200 m a.s.l. around point 19°50'47.2"N105°14'42.7"E”).

Type (“8 November 2013 L. Averyanov et al., CPC 6894”) - LE (holotype), Center for Plant Conservation, Hanoi (isotype).

 

Cleisostoma tricornutum Aver.
A: Flowering plant. B: Leaf. C: Inflorescence. D: Portion of the rachis, floral bract, pedicel and ovary. E: Flower, half-side view. F: Flower with removed lip, frontal view. G: Flattened sepals and petals. H: Lip from below and from above. I: Back-wall callus, frontal and side views. J: Sagittal section of the flower and ovary. K: Column with, and without anther cap. L: Anther cup, views from above, from below and side view. M: Pollinarium, frontal view, view from behind and side view. N: Portion of the inflorescence rachis and ripe opened fruit (all drawn from the type specimen - “L. Averyanov, N.T. Hiep, N.S .Khang et al., CPC 6894” by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak).

Etymology: Species name refers to the horn-shaped, forward protruding obtuse lip lobes.

Ecology: Canopy epiphyte. Primary and secondary broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous evergreen shady humid forests on highly eroded rocky limestone, commonly on steep slopes near hill or mountain tops. 100-1600 m. Fl. December - January; July - August. Occasional. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution: Vietnam: Ha Giang (Meo Vac), Lai Chau (Sin Ho), Lang Son (Huu Lung), Son La (sine loc.), Thai Nguyen (Vo Nhai), Thanh Hoa (Ba Thuoc; Thuong Xuan).

Endemic.

Studied specimens (paratypes): VIETNAM: Ha Giang province, Meo Vac district, Sung Tra municipality, Ta Cha Lang village, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc, T.V. Thao, P.V. The, N.S. Khang, HAL 8464B (HN, LE); Lai Chau province, Sin Ho district, Xa De Phin municipality, Mao Xa Phin village, P.K. Loc, N.T. Vinh, N.S. Khang, P.N. Quan,d T.A. Suu HAL 8713 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son province, Huu Lung district, Huu Lien municipality, Huu Lien nature reserve, P.V. The, N.T.Vinh PVT 487B (LE-photo); Son La province, Chu Xuan Canh, s.n. (LE - photo); Thanh Hoa province, Ba Thuoc district, Co Lung municipality, territory of Pu Luong protected area, Co Lung village, N. T. Hiep, L. Averyanov, N.T. Vinh, D.T. Doan HAL 1103 (HN, LE, MO); Thai Nguyen province, Vo Nhai district, Than Sa municipality, Kim Son village, N.T. Hiep, P.K. Loc, L. Averyanov NTH 3889 (hN, LE).

Cleisostoma phitamii Tich et Aver.

The type herbarium specimen was prepared from plant collected by Nguyen Thien Tich et al. in Khanh Hoa province, Khanh Son district, Son Trung municipality, Mt. O-Kha (Suoi Che) at 19 July 2013 and cultivated in Ho Chi Minh City. Type (27 September 2014, Nguyen Thien Tich, Tran Gioi, Luu Hong Truong, specimens no Tich 27-09-14) - SGN (holotype), LE (photo).

 

Cleisostoma phitamii Tich et Aver.
A: Flowering plant. B: Inflorescence. C - E: Flower, frontal, half-side and side views. F: Flattened sepals and petals. G: Lip, view from above. H: Sagittal section of the lip and column. I: Sagittal section of basal part of the lip including back-wall callus. J: Back-wall callus, adaxial surface. K: Back-wall callus, abaxial surface. L: Column, with anther cap, with pollinarium and with removed pollinarium. M: Anther cap, views from above and from below. N: Pollinarium, frontal view, view from behind and half-side views. O: Portion of inflorescence rachis, ovary and pedicel (drawn from the type specimen - “27 September 2014, N.T. Tich et al., no Tich 27-09-14' and the paratype specimen - “October 2014, Nguyen Thien Tich, no Tich 00.10.14” by Nguyen Thien Tich, L. Averyanov and T. Maisak).

Etymology: Species name refers to the name of its discoverer and orchid enthusiast - Mr. Nguyen Phi Tam.

Ecology: Epiphyte. Evergreen broad-leaved closed submontane forests. 600-800 m. Fl. August - October. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - CR [A1ac; B1+2ab(i-iv); C1; D1+2].

Distribution: Vietnam: Khanh Hoa (Khanh Son), Lam Dong (Prenn). Endemic.

Cleisostoma phitamii Tich et Aver.
A: Flowering plant in nature habitat. B: Flattened flowering shoot. C: Inflorescence. D: Flower, frontal view. E & F: Column and lip, frontal and half-side views. G & H: Column apex, operculum and viscidium (Photos A, C - H from the paratype specimen - “October 2014, Nguyen Thien Tich, no Tich 00.10.14’ by Nguyen Phi Tam, photo B from the type specimen - “27 September 2014, N.T. Tich et al., no Tich 27-09-14' by Nguyen Thien Tich). Photo corrections and design by L. Averyanov.

Studied specimens (paratypes): VIETNAM: Khanh Hoa province, Khanh Son district, Son Trung municipality, Mt. O Kha (Suoi Che), 19 July 2013, Nguyen Thien Tich, specimens no Tich 19-07-13 (SGN); Lam Dong province, Dalat City, fresh wild collected plant found on local orchid market, 9 September 2013, Nguyen Phi Tam, Nguyen Thien Tich, specimens no Tich 09-09-13 (SGN, LE - photo); Lam Dong province, Dalat City, Prenn area, October 2014, Nguyen Thien Tich, specimens no Tich 00.10.14 (SGN, LE, LE - photo).

Cleisostoma lecongkietii Tich et Aver.

Tich, 1999, Tim Hieu Hoa Lan. - Bull. Saigon Orch. Club (1999): 6; Tich et C.K. Le, 2008, Abstr. 1 Sympos. Fl. Cambod. Laos Viet: 40, nom. invalid
Described from southern Vietnam (“Binh Thuan, Phan Thiet”). Type (“Nguyen Thien Tich, no Tich 00.09.98”) - Herbarium of the Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam National University (holotype).

 

Cleisostoma lecongkietii Tich et Aver.
A: Leaf. B: Inflorescence. C & D: Flower, half-side and frontal views. E: Column, side view. F: Sagittal section of the flower and ovary. G: Anther cup, views from above, from below and half-side view. H: Pollinarium, frontal view, view from behind, half-side and side views (drawn from the type specimen - “Nguyen Thien Tich, no Tich 00.09.98” by Nguyen Thien Tich, L. Averyanov and T. Maisak).

Etymology: Species epithet refers to the name of the famous Vietnamese botanist and professor at the University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam National University - Dr. Le Cong Kiet.

Ecology: Epiphyte. Evergreen broad-leaved forest. 600-800 m. Fl. February - March. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - CR [A1ac; B1+2ab(i-iv); C1; D1+2].

 

Cleisostoma lecongkietii Tich et Aver.
A: Inflorescence. B: Flower, frontal view. C: Column, half-side view (photos from the paratype specimen - “8 March 2013, Nguyen Van Canh s.n.” by Nguyen Van Canh). C. subulatum Bl. D: Flowering plant (photo from the specimen - “Nguyen Van Canh s.n.” by Nguyen Van Canh). E: Inflorescence (photo from the specimen - “T. Maisak et al, 845’ by L.Averyanov). Photo corrections and design by L. Averyanov

Distribution. Vietnam: Binh Thuan (Phan Thiet), Dak Nong (Nam Nung nature reserve). Endemic.

Studied specimens (paratypes): VIETNAM: Dak Nong province, Nam Nung nature reserve, evergreen broad-leaved forest at elevation 600-800 m a.s.l., 8 March 2013, Nguyen Van Canh s.n. (LE - photo).

New Cleisostoma species reocord for the flora of Vietnam

Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Seidenf. et Smitinand) Garay, 1979

Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 172; Seidenf., 1995, Opera Bot. 124: 60, plate 12a. - Sarcanthus linearilobatus Seidenf. et Smitinand, 1965, Orch. Thailand 4, 2: 684, fig. 506. - S. sagittatus King et Pantl., 1897, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 595. - Cleisostoma sagittiforme Garay, 1972, Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 23, 4: 174; Seidenf., 1975, Dansk Bot. Ark. 29, 3: 19, fig. 5.

Described from NW. Thailand (“Kawng He, Chiengmai”). Type (“Kerr 363”) - K.

 

Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Seidenf. et Smitinand) Garay.
A & B: Portion of inflorescence. C: Flower, half-side view (photos from specimen - “8 March 2013, Nguyen Van Canh s.n.” by Nguyen Van Canh). C. tricornutum Aver. D: Plant habit. E & F: Portion of inflorescence. G & H: Flower, half-side and frontal views (photos D, F - H from the type specimen - “L.Averyanov et al., CPC 6894”, photo E from the paratype specimen - P.V. The, N.T. Vinh PVT 487B by L.Averyanov, P. Efimov and Pham Van The).
Photo corrections and design by L. Averyanov.

Distribution: Vietnam: Dak Nong (Nam Nung nature reserve). NE. India (Khasia), SW. China (Yunnan).

Studied specimens: Vietnam: Dak Nong province, Nam Nung nature reserve, evergreen broad-leaved forest at elevation 600-800 m a.s.l., 8 March 2013, Nguyen Van Canh s.n. (LE - photo).

Ecology: Evergreen broad-leaved forest. 600-800 m. Fl. July - August. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.

Cleisostoma subulatum Blume, 1825

Bijdr.: 363; Seidenf., 1975, Dansk Bot. Ark., 29, 3: 25; id., 1992, Opera Bot., 114: 390, pl. 35d; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 335; id., 2001, Orch. Sumatra: 894; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Malay. Sing.: 625; Pearce, Cribb, 2002, Orch. Bhutan: 511. - C. dealbatum Lindl., 1843, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 29 (Misc.): 5. - Sarcanthus dealbatus (Lindl.) Rchb.f., 1864, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 892; Gagnep., 1933, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 6, 4: 474. Fig. 6D & E.

Described from Java (“Java, Tjilele, Parang, Tjanjor”). Type (“Blume s.n.”) - L.

Ecology: Epiphyte. Dry evergreen lowland forests. 100-500 m. Fl. December-January, March-July. Locally common. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.

Distribution: Vietnam: Binh Phuoc (Loc Ninh). Bhutan, NE. India, S. Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Malacca Peninsula, Indonesia, Philippines.

Studied specimens: VIETNAM: Binh Phuoc (Song Be) province, Loc Ninh district, May 1991, Nguyen Thien Tich 00.05.91 (SGN); Binh Phuoc province, 14 May 2010, Nguyen Thien Tich 14.05.10 (SGN); Wild collected plants originated presumably from areas of southern Vietnam adjacent to the Cambodian border, Nguyen Van Canh sine no (LE - photos). CAMBODIA: Kaoh Rong Samoloem Khong Island in Siam Gulf, to the N of Sianukwille town, low hills around point 10°36’45’N 103°18’38’’, dry evergreen lowland forest, 19 November 2011, TMaisak, M.Telepova, L.Osinovets 845 (LE).

Leonid V. Averyanov
Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popov Str. 2, Russia, 197376.

Nguyen Thien Tich
Department of Botany & Ecology, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh National University. 227 Nguyen Van Cu St., 5th Dist., Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.

Nguyen Van Canh
3/12/3 Vo Van Kiet street, Buon Ma Thuot City, Dak Lakprovince, Vietnam.

(Taiwania 60(3):107-116, 2015)

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