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Four New Species and Two New Sections of Camellia (Theaceae) from Vietnam

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Four new species of Camellia L. (The­aceae) are described from Vietnam: C. duyana Orel, Curry & Luu, C. ligustrina Orel, Curry & Luu, C. bugiamapensis Orel, Curry, Luu & Q. D. Nguyen, and C. capitata Orel, Curry & Luu. The new taxa were collected from the Da Lat Plateau and the Lang Biang Massif phytogeographic region in southern Vietnam. The new finds are morphologically dissimilar to known Camellia species, and for two species, the new sections Camellia sect. Capitatae Orel and Camellia sect. Pierrea Orel are established. These species are endemic to the montane temperate or to the lowland tropical rainforests of Vietnam.

About 80% of all Camellia L. species are found in China, and most of the remainder occur within the territory of Vietnam. Traditionally, it was believed that there were ca. 26 Camellia species endemic to Vietnam, with 17 other species shared among Vietnam, China, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) (Tran, 2002). However, recent vegetation surveys have led to new discoveries in the Tam Dao National Park and adjacent geographic areas, as well as on Da Lat Plateau and Lang Biang Massif. This has resulted in an increase in the number of known indigenous Vietnamese Camellia species (Orel, 2006; Orel & Wilson, 2010a, 2010b, 2012; Orel et al., 2012). Further discoveries have been made in these geographic areas, including the four new species and the delimitation of two new sections within the genus established here. In assessing the new taxa, we consulted the taxonomic works of Sealy (1958), Chang and Bartholomew (1984), Ho (1991), Gao et al. (2005), and Ming and Bartholomew (2007). However, it should be pointed out that current taxonomic treatments of sections, and their contents in terms of species, tend to differ from author to author. Therefore, we drew data from these four currently used taxonomic systems to decide the basis of our taxonomic classification of the new species presented here. The taxonomic system of Sealy (1958) is considered to be the most detailed and thorough study of the genus Camellia currently available, and, along with Chang and Bartholomew (1984), it forms the basis upon which rests our current understanding of the genus. The taxonomic systems of Gao et al. (2005) and Ming and Bartholomew (2007) were used for supplementary data only, as these systems are deemed to be derived from, but inferior to, the system of Sealy (1958). As this paper is intended only to describe several new Camellia species, discussion of Camellia sections are kept to a minimum. To include an in-depth discussion of sectional relationships in the genus Camellia would indeed require a much larger, separate paper, so we have not undertaken a detailed consideration of the sectional treatment of individual Camellia species by different authors here.

Each of the four new species is described below, including placement according to our assessment of their position relative to the sectional scheme of Sealy (1958). Two species are referred to new sections owing to their unique combinations of characters that differentiate them from all currently named sections. Leaf venation terminology is based on Hickey (1979), and perule features are well illustrated by Gao et al. (2005).

Camellia sect. Heterogeneae Sealy

Flowers sessile or subsessile, solitary or paired; perules imbricate and forming an involucre, persis­tent or deciduous; stamens united with petals at base but otherwise free, glabrous; ovaries mostly tomen- tose; styles 3 to 5, free or united.

Camellia duyana Orel, Curry & Luu, sp. nov.

TYPE: Vietnam. Lam Dong: ca. 40 m below ridge of unnamed mtn. on Da Lat Plateau, ca. 1400 m, 27 Nov. 2010 (fl.), G. Orel & Nguyen Van Duy 0719 (holotype, NSW; isotype, SGN).

Camellia duyana Orel, Curry & Luu.
A. Adult leaf, primary and secondary venation, adaxial view. —B. Adult leaf, primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, adaxial view. —C. Adult leaf, primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, abaxial view. —D. Terminal leaf bud. —E. Perules, outer whorl. —F. Perules, middle whorl. —G. Perules, inner whorl. —H, I. Petals, outer whorl. —J, K. Petals, inner whorl. —L. Corolla and part of androecium. —M. Stamens. —N. Adult gynoecium. —O. Lateral view of mature flower, schematic diagram. —P. Branch with flowers and leaves. Drawn from the holotype G. Orel & Nguyen Van Duy 0719 (NSW, SGN)

Species nova Camelliae henryanae Cohen-Stuart, typo sectionis Heterogenearum Sealy, affinis, sed ab ea foliis ellipticis vel anguste ellipticis, floribus majoribus sessili- bus, petalis 5 ad 8, androecio ad corollam minus adnato et staminibus externis minus connatis differt.

Camellia ligustrina Orel, Curry & Luu, sp. nov.

TYPE: Vietnam. Lam Dong: Mt. Lang Biang,1850 m, 16 Dec. 2011 (fl., fr.), G. Orel & A. Curry 0734 (holotype, NSW; isotype, SGN).

Abaliis speciebus Camelliae L. foliis anguste ellipticis vel ellipticis, floribus sessilibus vel subsessilibus, perulis 6 ad 10, petalis 5 et ovario 3(4)-loculari distinguitur.

Camellia ligustrina Orel, Curry & Luu.
A. Adult leaf, primary and secondary venation, adaxial view. —B. Adult leaf, primary and secondary venation, shape variation, adaxial view. —C. Adult leaf, primary and secondary venation, abaxial view. —D. Terminal leaf bud. —E. Undifferentiated perules, distal whorl. —F, G. Undifferentiated perules, proximal whorl. —H—J. Petals, outer whorl. —K—M. Petals, inner whorl. —N. Developing flower bud. —O. Anthers. —P. The apex of the style. —R. Lateral view of mature flower, schematic diagram. —S. Adult fruit capsule. —T. Branch with flowers and leaves. Drawn from the holotype G. Orel & A. Curry 0734 (NSW, SGN).

 

Camellia sect. Dalatia Orel.

TYPE: Camellia luteocerata Orel.

Camellia bugiamapensis Orel, Curry, Luu & Q. D. Nguyen, sp. nov.

TYPE: Vietnam. Binh Phuoc: low lying tropical forest ca. 1 km from Cambodian border, within Bu Gia Map Natl. Park, 18 Dec. 2011 (fl.), Luu Hong Truong, Nguyen Quoc Dat, G. Orel & A. S. Curry 698 (holotype, SGN; isotype, NSW).

Camellia bugiamapensis Orel, Curry, Luu & Q. D. Nguyen.
A. Adult leaf, primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, adaxial view. —B. Adult leaf, leaf base and petiole with primary and secondary venation, abaxial view. —C, D. Adult leaf, leaf apex variation with primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, abaxial view. —E. Terminal leaf bud. —F-H. Undifferentiated perules. —I, J. Transitional petaloids. —K-M. Petals. —N. Developing flower bud. —O. Stamens with adjoining petal. —P. Adult gynoecium, schematic view. —R. Adult fruit capsule. —S. Adult branch with flowers and leaves. Drawn from the holotype Luu Hong Truong, Nguyen Quoc Bat, G. Orel & A. S. Curry 698 (SGN, NSW).

 

Camellia L. sect. Capitatae Orel, sect. nov.

TYPE: Camellia capitata Orel, Curry & Luu.

Inter sectiones alias floribus sessilibus, bracteis 8 ad 10 haud distinctis, sepalis 2, petalis biseriatis, filamentis externis ad bases petalorum affixis, antheris parvis basifixis, stylo unico columnari glabro et ovario 3-carpellato subtriangulari distinguitur.

Camellia capitata Orel, Curry & Luu, sp. nov.

TYPE: Vietnam. Lam Dong: Cat Tien Natl. Park, Plot 511, ca. 4 km N of Phuoc Son Forest Station, ca. 200 m, 11 Nov. 2010 (fl.), Pham Hong Thai & Nguyen Banh Hiep CT5 (holotype, SGN; isotype, NSW).


Camellia capitata
Orel, Curry & Luu.
A. Adult leaf, primary and secondary venation, adaxial view. —B. Adult leaf, primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, adaxial view. —C. Adult leaf, leaf apex variation with primary and secondary venation, adaxial view. —D. Adult leaf, leaf apex variation with primary, secondary, and tertiary venation, abaxial view. —E, F. Adult leaf, leaf base variation with primary and secondary venation, abaxial view. —G. Flower buds. —H. A single flower bud. —I, J. Bracts. —K, L. Sepals. —M, N. Petals, outer whorl. —O, P. Petals, inner whorl. —R. Stamens. —S. Adult gynoecium. —T. Stigma. —U. Lateral view of petal and stamen attachment, schematic diagram. —V. Branch with flowers and leaves. Drawn from the isotype Pham Hong Thai & Nguyen Danh Hiep CT5 (SGN, NSW).

 

Acknowledgments.

We are grateful to the manag­ers and staff of Lam Dong Province and Bu Gia Map, Cat Tien, and Bidoup-Nui Ba national parks for permits and their kind support and cooperation throughout the field trips. We appreciate the generous and wide-ranging assistance provided by our colleagues and the Southern Institute of Ecology.

Literature Cited

Chang, H. T. & B. Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Timber Press, Portland.

Gao, J., C. R. Parks & Y. Du. 2005. Collected Species of the Genus Camellia: An Illustrated Outline. Zhejiang Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou.

Hickey, L. J. 1979. A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. Pp. 25—39 in C. R. Metcalfe & L. Chalk (editors), Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Ho, P. H. 1991. Cayco Vietnam, Vol. 1, Pt. 1. Mekong Printing, Santa Ana.

IUCN. 2011. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, United Kingdom. <www.iucnredlist.org>, accessed 12 March 2013.

Ming, T. L. & B. Bartholomew. 2007. Theaceae. Pp. 366— 478 in Z.-Y. Wu & P. H. Raven (editors), Flora of China, Vol. 12 (Hippocastanaceae through Theaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Orel, G. 2006. A new species of Camellia sect. Piquetia (Theaceae) from Vietnam. Novon 16: 244—247.

Orel, G. & P. G. Wilson. 2010a. A new species of Camellia sect. Stereocarpus (Theaceae) from Vietnam. Novon 20: 198—202.

Orel, G. & P. G. Wilson. 2010b. Camellia luteocerata sp. nov. and a new section of Camellia (Dalatia) from Vietnam. Nordic J. Bot. 28: 280—284.

Orel, G. & P. G. Wilson. 2012. Camellia cattienensis: A new species of Camellia (sect. Archaecamellia: Theaceae) from Vietnam. Kew Bull. 66: 565—569.

Orel, G., P. G. Wilson, A. S. Curry & Luu Hong Truong. 2012. Camellia inusitata (Theaceae), a new species forming a new section (Bidoupia) from Vietnam. Edinburgh J. Bot. 69: 347—355.

Sealy, J. R. 1958. A revision of the genus Camellia. Royal Horticultural Society, London.

Tran, N. 2002. Proceedings of the First National Sympo­sium on Yellow Camellias in Vietnam, Tam Dao, 8—10 January. Organizing Committee, Hanoi.

 

George Orel, Peter G. Wilson, and Anthony S. Curry
Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs. Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
Luu Hong Truong
Southern Institute of Ecology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 1 Mac Dinh Chi, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Key words: Camellia, IUCN Red List, Theaceae, Vietnam.

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